国際学術雑誌 ACTIO No.3

actio No.3
 
Number 3 March 2010
 

Articles
 
JAAKKO VIRKKUNEN, & EIJA TENHUNEN
Finding a Concept That Integrates Specialists’ Know-How: The Case of Special School for Handicapped and Neurologically Ill Children
Abstract. The integration of specialised knowledge and know-how from many areas is needed to meet demanding challenges and a new path for development. In practice, this is, however, difficult. In the literature on collaboration between specialists representing different areas of expertise, much has been discussed about how coordination and exchange over disciplinary boundaries is possible. The development and function of integrative concepts in collaboration has been studied less. The concept of the object of an activity developed in the tradition of cultural historical activity theory can clarify the difference between the coordination of specialists’ contributions and the genuine integration of know-how. One of the activities that call for the integration of knowledge and skills from several areas of expertise is the upbringing of handicapped, neurologically ill children. In this article, we will describe a developmental intervention in which a new collaborative way of working between teachers, therapists and nurses was created. Instead of coordinating their different activities, the representatives of these professions started to collaboratively design and structure individual pupils’ daily activities so that they became rehabilitative.
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1-23
 
ROGER BARNARD
Activity Theory: A Framework for Analysing Intercultural Academic Activity
Abstract. This article suggests that Activity Theory (AT) can be applied as a holistic framework to analyse the complex sociocultural issues that arise when academics wish to engage in collaborative activity across institutional and cultural boundaries. Attention will initially focus on how Activity Theory, first formulated in the 1930s by Leont’ev (1978), and subsequently developed into a second generation by Engeström (1987), can help to analyse and illuminate the inherent complexity within any one community of practice. A more elaborate model of AT (Engeström, 2001) is currently being developed and applied to analyse and illuminate collaborative activity across institutional boundaries, so as to transform discourse communities into speech communities of practice through expansive learning. It is suggested that this ‘third generation’ model can be further refined to analyse specific contact zones, within and between activity systems, as a precursor to undertaking collaborative activity. It is suggested that, when discourse communities deriving from different culturally diverse traditions seek to work together, such an a priori analysis would enable potential areas for miscommunication and misconstrual to be identified and possibly resolved before collaborative activity actually commences.
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25-37
 
ANNA POPOVA
History in Person and Person in History: The Case of Preparation for Work in Russian Schools before and after 1991
Abstract. The issue of exploring historic transformations in social processes with regard to the individual development or social position is not new in social sciences; and yet history appears to be one of the most complex and controversial issues in social scientists’ debates. This article contributes to the ongoing theoretical discussion of studying an individual in history and history in an individual. At the basis of the argument is a case study of transformations in preparation for work in Russian schools as a result of the
1991 political change, and the role of those transformations in students’ construction of future working lives. I argue that the structural nature of the social activity can be used as the first methodological entry point for studying historical aspects of social processes; the concept of personhood, understood as a socially formed system of long-life functions, forms a methodologically more abstract level of linking history and individual development. I conclude that when history is taken seriously in social research, analytic processes become all-inclusive in the analysis of social processes and individual development.
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39-60
 
NAOTO OGAWA
Intercultural Collaborative Learning: Using Role-Play as a Tool
Abstract. This study examines the nature of intercultural collaborative learning. The concept of intercultural collaborative learning involves two types of learning: intercultural learning and collaborative learning. Intercultural learning generally refers to understanding different cultures by subscribing to a philosophy of cultural relativism. Collaborative learning is characterized by cooperating creatively with others in an atmosphere filled with mutual esteem; effective communication; successful utilization of fellow students as resources; an equitable division of labor; divergent and daring thinking; a high degree of interaction; mutual trust, influence, acceptance and support; emotional involvement; and coordination of effort. In this study, cross-cultural training using role-play is analyzed from the point of view of activity theory. Through this analysis, role-play is found to be a useful tool to promote intercultural collaborative learning in effective and creative ways. Intercultural collaborative learning may help to build a multicultural symbiotic community to foster creative and innovative activity in the global village.
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61-72
 
KATSUTOSHI YAMAZUMI
The Potentialities of Fiction for Understanding a New Work Organization, Knotworking
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of knotworking and what we can understand about knotworking through reading a detective story, The Sinister Pig. In “Knotworking and agency in fluid organizational fields,” Yrjö Engeström refers to Tony Hillerman’s novel, The Sinister Pig, to show an emerging organizational form in real life: knotworking. Claiming that fiction often vividly reflects a variety of social changes, Engeström examines The Sinister Pig as a story that presents a new way of collaboration among individuals, which can be applied to his concept of knotworking. In this paper, I describe Engeström’s perspective in his article and then analyze The Sinister Pig further to conclude that the essence of knotworking lies in striving for “freedom from the bondage of habit” (Bateson, 1972, p. 304).
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73-91