国際学術雑誌 ACTIO No.2

actio No.2
 
Number 2 March 2009
 

Articles
 
DOROTHY HOLLAND, & JEAN LAVE
Social Practice Theory and the Historical Production of Persons
Abstract. Working collaboratively we and others have developed a historical, material theory of social practice that integrates the study of persons, local practice, and long term historically institutionalized struggles. We have drawn on the work of Vygotsky, Bakhtin, and Mead to develop this approach to “history in person.” Social Practice Theory, like Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) takes activity as a central focus. But, in contrast to CHAT, social practice theory emphasizes the historical production of persons in practice, and pays particular attention to differences among participants, and to the ongoing struggles that develop across activities around those differences. Through Holland’s ethnographic work on environmental groups in the Southeastern United States we show the integration of emotion, motivation and agency into cultural-historical activity theory by means of Vygotskian and Bakhtinian inspired ideas concerning “history in person.” Lave’s research focuses on tension, conflict and difference in participation in cultural activities in an old port wine merchant community in Porto, and looks to both local and trans-local institutional arrangements and practices for explanations.
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1-15
 
YRJO ENGESTROM
From Learning Environments and Implementation to Activity Systems and Expansive Learning
Abstract.The paper argues that the notion of learning environment is not a theoretical concept that can serve as the centerpiece and unit of analysis in research on computersupported collaborative learning, and that the preoccupation in this research domain with implementation of digital learning environments is a largely misguided consequence of the unquestioned expectation that technology will radically change learning. The paper suggests that these two pervasive weaknesses may be at least partially overcome by examining activity systems as an alternative unit of analysis and by focusing on expansive learning instead of implementation as such. A case study of a Finnish middle school demonstrates that it is important to build the introduction of new technologies on the local realities of actual teachers and students. It is unlikely that the implementation and diffusion of advanced digital learning environments will be successful in a school where the teachers will not allow the students to use computers during recess and the students believe that their teachers will in any case take away the computers the next day. In the school examined in the case study, the building of trust and optimism by means of simple new practices and artifacts was the first step toward a serious collective engagement with the potentials of computers for instruction and learning.
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17-33
 
KATSUHIRO YAMAZUMI
Not from the Inside Alone but by Hybrid Forms of Activity: Toward an Expansion of School Learning
Abstract. This article illuminates and analyzes a hybrid educational project as intervention research in Osaka. The intervention research aims to develop a hybrid activity system in schools, based on a partnership between a university and local elementary schools but also involving other social actors and institutions. These parties are involved in designing and implementing such forms of activity as children’s project-based learning and networks of learning to bridge the gap between school activities and the productive practices of everyday life outside the school. Based on the framework of activity theory and the expansive learning approach to school innovation, the idea of this intervention is that expanding school activity is carried out not from the inside alone but by creating hybrid and symbiotic activities in which various involved partners inside and outside the school collaborate and reciprocate with one another; participating organizations and actors potentially share expanded new objects of educational work. In these symbiotic forms of activity, various providers of learning outside schools offer different learning trajectories to teachers and children, and the rules and patterns of instruction/learning are different from those in classroom-based teaching. The notion of ‘negotiated knotworking’ is useful in analyzing this emergence of joint engagement. Knotworking refers to a way of organizing and conducting productive activities in hybrid and distributed fields where different partners operate. The involved partners should be seen as a collective of expansive learners who are willingly generating expansive and powerful learning trajectories that are potentially changing the school.
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35-55